utilitarianism

A description of the process of diffusion

The leader of the successful party, however, if he has authority enough to prevail upon his own friends to act with proper temper and moderation (which he frequently has not), may sometimes render to his country a service much more essential and important than the greatest victories and the most extensive conquests. This will mean, not that Shakespeare’s spring from the feelings or imagination and Jonson’s from the intellect or invention; they have equally an emotional source; but that Shakespeare’s represent a more complex tissue of feelings and desires, as well as a more supple, a more susceptible temperament. This is a first principle with him. Such imitations are still easier in Music. It is particularly noticeable from the strange, mystical conceit it contains that to the person who truly loves, the mere bodily presence or absence of the beloved object is unimportant, nay, not even noticed. Take the pause or hiatus. In fact, Titian’s _Mistress_ answers exactly, I conceive, to the idea conveyed by the English word, _sweetheart_.—The Marchioness of Guasto is a fairer comparison. He finds that if a child is in a ticklish mood, the tickling of any part or even the threat of doing so will suffice to provoke laughter. To ride on anybody’s foot brought out, at the end of the fifth month, the unmistakable signs of hilarious rapture. Yet this {309} consideration does not seem to help us in understanding how the two polar moods of hilarity and sadness should be able to combine. This system was probably the first adopted by man when he began to set in order his perceptions within the categories of his understanding, with the aim of giving them vocal expression. The unexpected presentation which gladdens us seems commonly to bring a kind of relief. The **fame of the Greek and Roman learning, which was then recent in the memories of men, made them desire to know, concerning these abstruse subjects, what were the doctrines of the so much renowned sages of those two nations. I can form an imaginary idea of that pain as existing out of myself: but I can only feel it as a sensation when it is actually impressed on myself. Some of the most indifferent library towns, for instance, are the ones where superhuman efforts were put forth to secure a Carnegie building. This would not have happened (so the Member for Old Sarum contended) had Addison laid himself out to argue at his club, or to speak in public; for then his ear would have caught the necessary modulations of sound arising out of the feeling of the moment, and he would have transferred them unconsciously to paper. After some wild conjectures of the earliest philosophers, observes Goldsmith, it became well known in the time of Pliny that the tides were entirely under the influence in a small degree of the sun, but in a much greater of the moon. We English are charged unjustly with wishing to disparage the French: we cannot help it; there is a natural antipathy between the two nations. The one we think is awkward when it appears without its usual companion. What a strange infatuation to live in a dream of being taken for what one is not,—in deceiving others, and at the same time ourselves; for no doubt these persons believed that they thus appeared to the world in their true characters, and that their assumed pretensions did no more than justice to their real merits. The Stars, when more attentively surveyed, were some of them observed to be less constant and uniform in their motions than the rest, and to change their situations with regard to the other heavenly bodies; moving generally eastward, yet appearing sometimes to stand still, and sometimes even, to move westwards. It was expressed here, as it appears in nature, not as something separated and detached, but as thoroughly mixed and blended with the co-relative object. When they are directed by justice and benevolence, they are not only great virtues, but increase the splendour of those other virtues. We may then infer that, when some of the reiterated babble-like sounds were produced during states of pleasurable satisfaction, the same (primary) position would be taken up. The Cartesians, by their doctrine of the tracks which they admit in the brain, acknowledge the influence of the brain on the intellectual faculties.’ Page 118. I.–_Of the Passions which take their Origin from the Body._ 1. It may be said to be, at once, both what the logicians call, a singular, and what they call, a common term; and to join, in its signification the seemingly opposite qualities of the most precise individuality and the most extensive generalization. It has continued, excepting a short convalescence during an attack of dysentery: and this is now more than seven years ago; and after which, an artificial drain was kept open, but with no apparent benefit; the dysenteric attack was also imitated, but with no further benefit or effect than its mere physical depressing influence at the time. It is very fine, and truly English; and being natural, it was easily made into history. Along with this identity of plan, there coexists the utmost independence of expression. They think it should be regulated by the doctrine of Utility. Vanity springs out of the grave of sordid self-interest. As the etymology of the word suggests, wit is not so much a special faculty concerned with a particular class of relations, as an attitude or manner of behaviour of the {355} intelligence as a whole. Nor were the first followers of Copernicus more fortunate in their answers to some other objections, which were founded indeed in the same ignorance of the laws of motion, but which, at the same time, were necessarily connected with that way of conceiving things, which then prevailed universally in the learned world. Whether it is the same in his politics, I cannot say. 5.—Torpid lethargy. The command of fear, the command of anger, are always great and noble powers. Though this involuntary falsehood may frequently be no mark of any want of veracity, of any want of the most perfect love of truth, it is always in some degree a mark of want of judgment, of want of memory, of improper credulity, of some degree of precipitancy and rashness. To detect it in another, as already noted, requires more than a brief acquaintance. Was Lewis Carroll a satirist when he threw behind the fun of his children’s stories some deeper meaning which for ever eludes us? INTRODUCTION.–There is another set of qualities ascribed to the actions and conduct of mankind, distinct from their propriety or impropriety, their decency or ungracefulness, and which are the objects of a distinct species of approbation and disapprobation. But with it all, this feature in its misdirected energy and lack of method is the weak point of the whole system. He lived in no fairyland, but his mind went out and became a part of things. No one reads the same book twice over with the same satisfaction. Locke calls reflection, and from which he derived the simple ideas of the different passions and emotions of the human mind, was, according to Dr. If it is excessive, I will go to a house from whence no tyrant can remove me. In the later ages of the republic, some dishonour, I apprehend, would have attended this submission. They acquired languages, consulted books, and decyphered manuscripts. Still, the combat of David and Goliath has been cited as a model and justification of the judicial duel; and there are some practices described in Scripture which are strictly ordeals, and which were duly put forth by the local clergy throughout Europe when struggling to defend the system against the prohibitions of the papacy. In common life long compounds are rare, while in the native Mexican poetry each line is often but one word. or how could this obstruction, if it ever had subsisted, have ever been removed? that this principle must be entirely nugatory with respect to the associations of the ideas of different senses, even though it should hold true with respect to those of any one sense,[92] lastly that all ideas impressed at the same time acquire a power of exciting one another ever after without any regard to the coincidence of their imaginary seats in the brain (according to the material hypothesis) and that therefore the true account of the principle of association must be derived from the first cause, viz. He had not bottomed his proposition on proofs, nor rightly defined it. To turn this physiognomical observation to a metaphysical account, I should say then that Northern people are clean and Southern people dirty as a general rule, because where the principle of life is more cold, weak, and impoverished, there is a greater shyness and aversion to come in contact with external matter (with which it does not so easily amalgamate), a greater fastidiousness and delicacy in choosing its sensations, a greater desire to know surrounding objects and to keep them clear of each other, than where this principle being more warm and active, it may be supposed to absorb outward impressions in itself, to melt them into its own essence, to impart its own vital impulses to them, and in fine, instead of shrinking from every thing, to be shocked at nothing. It is otherwise in Poetry; no accompaniment is necessary to mark the measure of good Verse. We are hindered not only by our own propensity to waste time but by those whose own is of no value and who therefore insist on wasting ours for us. 6. Again, ‘A jest’s _prosperity_ lies in the ear Of him that hears it.’ I thought, in quoting from memory, of ‘A jest’s _success_,’ ‘A jest’s _renown_,’ &c. Every other thought necessarily appears mean in the comparison. Personal qualities. We shall revert to this important subject in an essay on the primary principles of education; and shall only now remark, that where we perceive a soil full of the seeds of all these evils, we can expect only corresponding fruits? What should we think of a poet who should publish to the world, or give a broad hint in private, that he conceived himself fully on a par with Homer or Milton or Shakespear? Yet laughter comes into it in another form. In this, the provisions of the early Gothic monarchs respecting torture are textually preserved, with two trifling exceptions, which may reasonably be regarded as scarcely more than mere errors of copyists.[1475] Torture was thus maintained in Spain as an unbroken ancestral custom, and the earliest reference which I have met with of it in medi?val jurisprudence occurs in 1228, when Don Jayme el Conquistador a description of the process of diffusion of Aragon forbade his representatives from commencing proceedings by its employment without special orders.[1476] When Alfonso the Wise, about the middle of the thirteenth century, attempted to revise the jurisprudence of his dominions, in the code known as _Las Siete Partidas_, which he promulgated, he only simplified and modified the proceedings, and did not remove the practice. It supplies diversion in youth and still more in age, and it may with a few, as it did with Heine and R L. Even when the spirit of the age (that is, the progress of intellectual refinement, warring with our natural infirmities) no longer allows us to carry our vindictive and headstrong humours into effect, we try to revive them in description, and keep up the old bugbears, the phantoms of our terror and our hate, in imagination. The semi-barbarian, impatient of such expenditure of logic, arrived at results by a shorter process. But actual pleasure, and pain are not the objects of voluntary action. Though in this case we denote by the same word (in the same manner, and for the same reason, as in the case of heat and cold) both the sensation and the power of exciting that sensation, this ambiguity of language misleads the natural judgments of mankind in the one case as little as in the other. “On peut dire que le respect que l’on a pour les heros augmente a mesure qu’ils s’eloignent a description of the process of diffusion de nous.”[75] In the same way the intensity of horror bestowed upon the arch-villain of the piece is increased in proportion to the distance away from which he is regarded; in other words, the less you know about him. {328} But here, also, the humorous have their remedies. CHAPTER VIII. She is directed by this sole consideration, and pays little regard to the different degrees of merit and demerit, which they may seem to possess in the sentiments and passions of man. lat. The full process of laughter is, like coughing, sobbing and other actions, a violent interruption of the rhythmic flow of the respiratory movements. Their capability of lapsing into the jocose vein becomes greatly restricted and may take directions that seem out-of-the-way to the more habitual laugher. Unpopularity ‘doth part the flux of company.’ Each claimed an exception for himself or party, was glad to have any loop-hole to hide himself from this ‘open and apparent shame,’ and to shift the blame from his own shoulders, and would by no means be mixed up with Jacobins and Levellers—the terms with which their triumphant opponents qualified indiscriminately all those who differed with them in any degree. It is the general property of iron to be attracted by the loadstone, though this effect can only take place in consequence of the loadstone’s being brought near enough to it, nor is any thing more meant by the assertion. At last they summoned courage, and after many side looks at one another they faced round and burst out laughing, the elder boy saying, “We are alike marked”.[163] Here escape from _gene_, from a feeling akin to shame, was the primary condition of the laughter, a description of the process of diffusion though this was no doubt reinforced by a sense of triumph as each discovered that he was, at least, not worse off than the other. All his efforts were directed to harmonizing the institutions of his different subjects, and he was too sagacious not to see the manifest superiority of the Roman polity. These passions, however, are regarded as necessary parts of the character of human nature. For a first attempt at gauging a boy’s humour the schoolmaster might, perhaps, do worse than select the following test, suggested by a remark of one of my most learned and most respected friends, that the situation referred to is the one which, in his case, excites the most hearty merriment: “Supposing you made a call, and having placed your hat on a chair inadvertently proceeded to sit on it; how would you feel?” {427} A more manageable problem for the pedagogue would seem to be to try, now and again, to force back the bolts of discipline and approach the boy with a judicious overture of fun. Here is a non-territorial basis for classification, founded only upon the age of the library’s users. Dr. The books were ransacked, and among them were found several Greek and Latin Fathers, together with a collection of Rabbinical writings. Reason, I conceive, in the sense that you would appeal to it, may signify any one of three things, all of them insufficient as tests and standards of moral sentiment, or (if that word displeases) of moral conduct:—1. All the members of human society stand in need of each others assistance, and are likewise exposed to mutual injuries. They are the most frivolous and superficial of mankind only who can be much delighted with that praise which they themselves know to be altogether unmerited. The command of anger, however, does not always appear in such splendid colours. He would, too, perhaps, if he was a man of speculation, enter into many reasonings concerning the effects which this disaster might produce upon the commerce of Europe, and the trade and business of the world in general. There is extant a tract, written not long after this time, containing very minute instructions as to the established mode of dealing with the Waldensian sectaries known as the “Poor Men of Lyons.” It gives directions to break down their strength and overcome their fortitude by solitary confinement, starvation, and terror, but it abstains from recommending the infliction of absolute and direct torture, while its details are so full that the omission is fair negative evidence that such measures were not then customary.[1548] The whole system of the Inquisition, however, was such as to render the resort to torture inevitable. Process description the diffusion of a of.